How does optical fiber work?

- Jul 19, 2019-

Optical fibers for communications consist of hair-thin glass filaments covered with plastic protective coatings. The glass filament is essentially composed of two parts: the core diameter is 9 to 62.5 microns, and the outer diameter is 125 microns of low refractive index glass material. Although there are other types of optical fibers according to the materials and sizes used, the most common ones are mentioned here. Light is transmitted by "total internal reflection" in the core of the optical fiber, that is, when light enters one end of the optical fiber, it reflects back and forth between the core and cladding interface, and then transmits to the other end of the optical fiber. Fibers with a core diameter of 62.5 um and a cladding outer diameter of 125 um are called 62.5/125 um light.

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